Their conversation reveals how the power of form, representation, intense color, and scale functions in the wake of Abstract Expressionism and Pop art, blurring the boundary between painting and sculpture for both Wesselmann and Craig-Martin.
Multimedia Much has been written about the failing vision of Edgar Degas and Claude Monet, and theoretical arguments have been made about the extent to which it was or was not a factor in their late style.
This article uses medical knowledge and computer simulation to demonstrate their perceptions and show the relevance of their different diseases and styles of painting. Gaussian blur was applied first to fog the chart in correspondence with different levels of visual acuity judging by the last line that remained readable.
Then, brunescence was simulated from clinical experience by removing blue effectively adding a yellow filter and darkening the image. Finally, blur and filter settings appropriate to different stages of Degas' and Monet's eye disease were applied to photographs of Monet's garden and to works of art.
Degas Degas probably had a progressive retinal disease that caused central macular damage. Degas remained able to walk around comfortably late in life, which suggests that the damage did not involve the retinal periphery. There was never any indication that he had cataracts, although these would have been easily recognizable and operable during his lifetime.
Remarkably, however, he continued to do pastels until he had to move out of his familiar studio in Changes in Degas' style correlated rather closely with this progressive loss of vision.
His works in the s were drawn quite precisely with facial detail, careful shading, and attention to the folding of ballet costumes and towels. As his visual acuity began to diminish in the s and s, he drew the same subjects, but the shading lines and details of the face, hair, and clothing became progressively less refined Figure 2 A, B, and C.
One study 13 showed that the spacing of his shading lines increased in proportion to his failing visual acuity over nearly 3 decades. Afterthese effects were quite extreme and many pictures seem mere shadows of his customary style eg, Figure 2 C.
Bodies were outlined irregularly, images were marred by strange blotches of color, and there was virtually no detailing of faces or clothing.
Nothing in Degas' correspondence indicated that he was consciously trying to be more expressionistic or abstract; in fact, his pastels were drawn on larger and larger expanses of paper as he struggled to work. Some answers may lie in the recognition of how these works appeared to him. Figure 2 D, E, and F show these same works adjusted through computer simulation to the level of Degas' visual acuity at the time that he made them.
These simulations do not alter colors since color discrimination loss with maculopathy is usually mild and is not consistent. The striking finding is that Degas' blurred vision smoothed out much of the graphic coarseness of his shading and outlines. How can this be?
It reflects, in large measure, the particular style of Degas' work. He was not recording precise landscapes or portraits as were Rembrandt or Cassatt who stopped painting when cataracts blurred her vision.
Degas' main concern was the shape and posture of his subjects and their setting in space, and these characteristics are easily discernible even with poor vision. Although he must have known through tactile feedback and perhaps by close-up examination that he was using coarser lines, when he stood back to look at the works, he saw well-shaded nudes and dancers.
I suggest that this curiously beneficial effect of visual loss, relative to Degas' style, helps to explain why he continued to work. To him, these late works looked similar to his earlier ones, and he could not effectively judge or understand the impression these works would make on viewers with normal vision.
Monet The situation was different for Monet We know from medical records and correspondence that he had cataracts that worsened steadily over the decade from to The visual simulations of this study are based on estimation of the lens discoloration that is typically associated with differing levels of visual acuity loss from chronic nuclear sclerotic cataracts.
Monet was aware of his failing vision in and consulted several different ophthalmologists, who diagnosed cataracts. Interestingly, he was worried that his color perception would be altered by the surgery although one might argue that it would become more normal.
By toMonet's visual difficulties were becoming more serious.
However, the yellowing of his lens caused greater difficulty with his art than the blur. Figure 3 A and B compare a photograph of Monet's garden and a painting of the scene from when his vision was unimpaired.Towards Automated Classification of Fine -art Painting Style: a Comparative S tudy Ravneet Singh Arora and Ahmed Elgammal Department of Computer Science, Rutgers University, NJ, USA.
Chapter 10 - Motor system examination. In this chapter we discuss the evaluation of the motor systems, that is the systems involved in generation and control of voluntary and reflex movements.
Ekphrastic poetry in performance: An examination of audience perceptions of the relationship between poetry and painting Article in Text and Performance Quarterly 9(3) · July with An examination of form (color and intensity) could provide a quantifiable, objective psychological measure of the artist’s mental state.
The present article examines the work of . Painting from still-life, landscape, and life models from observation will be geared towards realism; at the same time, various other painting styles could be explored.
Color theory, linear perspective, compositional structure, figure/ground relationships, visual perception, spatial concepts, and critical thinking skills will all be emphasized. Art experts have examined the content of the artist’s work more than the form of the piece, looking for a link to the individual’s mental state.
One example can be found in the examination of Caravaggio’s painting and a potential diagnosis of .