Black consciousness in the twentieth century 2 essay

References and Further Reading 1.

Black consciousness in the twentieth century 2 essay

The new situation being the 21st century, which requires this tradition to articulate a coherent alternative political and economic vision for a better South Africa, a challenge that the BC tradition is yet to take up It is not enough to keep highlighting the legacy of racism without proposing alternative socio-economic institutions that aim to overcome racism in all its expression.

Instead of political slogans, political and economic programmes that speak to the post-apartheid cultural and material conditions have to be developed.

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Generally, the post-apartheid material culture compels many South Africans to live beyond their means. Research shows that South Africans are currently over-indebted by Rbn. For many black South Africans the consumer culture promises a post-colonial society in which blacks can counter white privilege through personal enrichment.

Historically, blackness has been associated with poverty and limited life chances, while, on the other hand, whiteness means wealth and high social status in the imagination of the mainstream society. Additionally, materialism in this context, not black consciousness, becomes a revolutionary concept due to its potential to mediate racist assumptions and due to its underlying promises to bring about a unifying mass consumer culture in a postcolonial society that has no clear racial status ranking, to echo Paul Mullins, American academic that teaches material culture.

Black consciousness in the twentieth century 2 essay

While black consciousness has largely remained an abstract philosophy many black South Africans place material consumption at the centre of their vision of postcolonial citizenship. This is partly because mass consumer culture provides some black South Africans with a concrete strategy to counter the legacies of the apartheid system.

The UPM further points out that the political record of BC organisations in post-apartheid South Africa is one of on-going political failure. In short, BC organisations have failed to develop and articulate a new polity. The UPM is of the view that a new BC polity would have to take into consideration the global crisis of capitalism, as well as the new struggles that are emerging around the world.

My argument is that in addition to struggling against negative social realities, 21st century BC ought to work towards developing a set of proposals for post-apartheid societal institutions.

Similarly, if the BC tradition is going to grow intellectually, then it has to value criticism rather than sectarianism. According to the UPM, in post-apartheid South Africa, BC organisations have often been characterised by authoritarianism and a tendency to use slander and intimidation to shut down debate.

The departure point for 21st century BC ought to be the acknowledgement that even the best social theories have flaws. Accordingly, this has to be our mental attitude towards BC.

Equally important is the realisation that treating political ideas as part of our personal identities tends to lead to sectarianism.

Black consciousness in the twentieth century 2 essay

My view is that we should regard political theories as intellectual tools to assist us understand social reality, and we ought to value the usefulness of intellectual ideas based on whether or not they help us achieve our social and political goals. I personally would like to see 21st century BC take these simple truths seriously.

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Read more articles filed under Human Rights. Read more articles tagged with: You can find this page online at http:States of Consciousness PSY/ June 5, Elise M.

Vandamia, MS, LPC CheckPoint: States of Consciousness There are various states of consciousness; the one that people spend the most time in is waking consciousness, the alert state that people are in when they are awake. Double consciousness is a term describing the internal conflict experienced by subordinated groups in an oppressive society.

The Intuitive Linear View versus the Historical Exponential View

It was coined by W. E. B. Du Bois with reference to African American "double consciousness," including his own, and published in the autoethnographic work, The Souls of Black Folk.

The term originally referred to . An analysis of the history of technology shows that technological change is exponential, contrary to the common-sense intuitive linear view.

So we won't experience years of progress in the 21st century -- it will be more like 20, years of progress (at today's rate). The returns, such as chip speed and cost-effectiveness, also increase exponentially. History Essay The Black Consciousness movements aimed to help black people in South Africa become proud of their own identity.

The BCM was formed because many of the countries ANC leaders at the time were either in exile or in prison. The idea of this study struck me six years ago after the first mention of the Black Irish as told to me in variant four of the myth.

The question of its origin, meaning, and purpose has haunted me ever since, primarily due to my own Irish heritage (my mother's family . provides links and source material related to The Souls of Black Folk written by the African American activist, writer, and scholar: William Edward Burghardt DuBois.

The research is conducted and arranged by Dr. Robert urbanagricultureinitiative.comms.

The End of History? - Francis Fukuyama