Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message The two parvorders, baleen whales Mysticeti and toothed whales Odontocetiare thought to have diverged around thirty-four million years ago. Baleen whales have bristles made of keratin instead of teeth.
Only a few school districts nationwide have sought help from either type of organization in the management of low-performing schools.
But in the School District of Philadelphia, at the request of the state of Pennsylvania, asked entities of both types to participate in a substantial restructuring of many of its lowest performing schools. The restructuring initiative was directed by the Philadelphia School Reform Commission SRCwhich contracted with for-profit organizations to manage 30 elementary and middle schools and with nonprofit organizations to manage 16 schools.
The policy intervention in Philadelphia raises questions of general interest: Do students at schools assigned to for-profit or nonprofit managers learn more than would be expected had those schools remained under school district management?
Is for-profit management more or less effective at raising achievement than nonprofit management? Told most simply, the Philadelphia story provides a threefold answer to these questions: However, the answers require both explication and qualification. The Theoretical Debate The distinction between for-profit and nonprofit management has been a topic of continuing discussion in the scholarly literature on school reform.
Nobel Prize—winning economist Milton Friedman theorized that for-profit firms are more effective because they have clear economic incentives to lift student performance. The firm can build its reputation and in the long run generate a profit only if it becomes known for running effective schools.
The debate over nonprofit organizations takes a different form.
Some have argued that nonprofit managers are likely to be effective because they have close ties to the community in which they are embedded and can enlist the energies of committed entrepreneurs, who devote all available resources to enhance student performance.
But others caution that nonprofit managers may not have the experience, resources, or economic incentives necessary for building quality educational institutions.
The Intervention Only after an intense political struggle did the Philadelphia school district ask for-profit and nonprofit managers to assume responsibility for a number of its schools.
In Pennsylvania governor Tom Ridge, a Republican and school voucher supporter, indicated he would not support any increase in funding for the Philadelphia school district until an independent entity had assessed its financial practices and educational effectiveness.
Governor Ridge refused to distribute any more state aid beyond current levels unless the school district agreed to a new partnership with the state. The stage was set for a compromise that would save face for all the parties involved.
It was agreed that the school board should be replaced by a School Reform Commission, three members of which would be appointed by the governor and two by the mayor. The SRC decided that only a limited number of the lowest-performing schools in the district would be turned over to private management.
Edison Schools was not to be the only private provider. Instead, seven entities—three for-profit and four nonprofit—were chosen. The SRC explained its decision by saying that multiple providers would yield information on the kind of management that was most effective.
The SRC asked Edison Schools to manage 20 of the schools; another 5 each would become the responsibility of two other for-profit companies, Victory Schools and Chancellor Beacon Academies.
Sixteen of the low-performing schools would be managed by nonprofit entities—the University of Pennsylvania 3 schoolsTemple University 5 schoolsFoundations 5 schoolsand Universal 3 schools.
The SRC also appointed a reform-minded superintendent, the energetic and outspoken Paul Vallas, who had instituted a series of reforms in Chicago at the behest of Mayor Richard Daley.
The for-profit firms were more experienced in running schools but they had fewer local political connections than did the nonprofit entities, as none had operated programs within the city itself.
Though Edison was held in high regard by the Republican state secretary of education, it faced strong opposition within Philadelphia, especially from the local teachers union.
Edison Schools could claim considerable experience at running schools, however, as it was the manager of district and charter schools nationwide.Shareholders should be realistically allowed to directly select corporate director candidates via the SEC Shareholder Proposal procedure.
The days of corporate paternalism should be ended. Corporate governance problems will only be cured when Shareholders can easily remove incompetent/corrupt Directors, i.e., vote them out of office. I started using Twitter the day the CA3blog site crashed.
In September of last year, I wrote something provocative here about a book by Judge Posner (“batshit crazy”) that got a bazillion hits from readers on Twitter, enough hits to bring down the blog’s website.
Until that day I’d been a proud Twitter hold-out, but crashing my humble blog got my attention. Case Rendell Company, Case Analysis on Management Control System Words | 6 Pages. CASE CONTEXT Rendell Company is experiencing some difficulties in implementing its modern control techniques due to the irking relationship between the divisional controller and the corporate controller.
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