Judaism as a Group Evolutionary Strategy:
Research Critique 1 Jamber, E. Investigating leadership, gender, and coaching level using the Revised Leadership for Sport Scale. Journal of Sport Behavior, 20, The purpose of the study was to determine possible differences in leadership behaviors, using the Revised Leadership for Sport Scale RLSSbetween male and female coaches and among different coaching levels.
The researchers submitted two hypotheses. The first hypothesis was that male and female coaches would respond differently to the RLSS in overall leadership behaviors. The second hypothesis was that differences on the RLSS would occur among coaching levels: The sample was nonrandom, including coaches that were chosen on a volunteer basis.
Within the sample, 0. With regard to coaching level, 25 0. While this is a good sample size, the problem lies with the distribution of the sample. The sample number for junior high coaches, in particular, is rather low.
A larger sample with regard to all categories would have aided in the data analysis, particularly when looking for possible interactions between gender and coaching level. This scale is used to measure six leadership behaviors: This produced an ordinal level data set.
Scales were administered in a number of environmental settings: The internal consistency for each section was calculated: There was no information, however, regarding the validity of the RLSS. A MANOVA was used to analyze the data for differences between male and female coaches with regard to leadership behaviors.
This is not consistent with the type of data collected. The analysis showed there were no significant differences between male and female coaches in overall leadership behaviors. When the six leadership styles were examined separately, there was a significant difference in social support between males and females.
In general, females scored much higher than did the male coaches.
A MANOVA was also used to examine the data for differences between the three levels of coaching junior high, high school, and college with regard to leadership behavior in general. There were significant differences between the three levels.
When breaking down the six behaviors and examining them individually, an ANOVA was used to analyze the data.
The three coaching levels scored differently on three of the six behaviors: High school coaches scored much higher than college level coaches in democratic behavior. Junior high coaches were significantly lower in training and instruction than either high school or college coaches. Junior high coaches also demonstrated a lesser degree of social support than either the high school or college coaches.
A MANOVA was again used to analyze the data for any interaction between gender and coaching level with regard to overall leadership behavior. Once again, a better analysis method could have been chosen based on the nature of the data collected.
The results indicated no significant interactions. The ecological generaliziability for the study is fairly high. The surveys were mailed out, and returned on a volunteer basis. There was no effect size is listed for the study. The researchers mention that the scales were given in a variety of settings.
This could present a threat to the internal validity in that participants might not have been entirely focused on completing the scale, but instead on coordinating practice, completing paperwork, etc. There are a number of other factors that could effect the internal validity of the study, yet were not addressed by the researchers.
Coaching experience would greatly effect the responses of the participants, yet this was not considered in the study. It is not unreasonable to suppose that coaches of female athletes, particularly at the junior high and high school levels, will demonstrate more social support than those of male athletes.
The nature of the sport could also be critical. Certain coaching styles are more applicable for individual sports wrestling, track, and tennis than for team sports football, soccer, and basketball. The socioeconomics and population of the school itself could play a factor.
Certain schools have better athletes and programs in a particular sport, while others may not be able to field a winning team.ABSTRACT. This three part series of articles provides a brief overview of relevant research designs in nursing.
The first article in the series presents the most frequently used quantitative research designs. I’ve seen it happen many times, but it never ceases to sadden me.
An organization starts off with a clear vision and an impervious commitment to excellence, but as it grows, the vision blurs and excellence gets diluted through a series of compromises. Journal of Health, Social and Environmental Issues () Vol 6, No 1 45 Abstract A new framework for critiquing health-related research is presented in this article.
article provides the practical points of conducting a formally written quantitative research article critique while providing a brief example to demonstrate the principles and form. Keywords: quantitative article critique, statistics, methodology, graduate students Introduction.
Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 1: quantitative research Abstract ). A critique is an impersonal evaluation of the strengths and limitations of the research being reviewed and should not be seen as a disparagement of the researchers ability.
Neither should it be regarded as. At Fastway Movers NYC, New Jersey, Boston & Miami, we understand that every move is urbanagricultureinitiative.comâ€™s why we give our services special treatment, in particular compared to other moving companies.
We are always trying to outdo ourselves by seeking innovation, using the latest technology, and having highly trained and qualified people for every service.