Originally, he had proposed five management functions; namely, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. Modern texts have reduced the functions from five to four.
The four basic elements in a control system: We select a specific characteristic because a correlation exists between it and how the system is performing.
|Planning is decision makingregarding the goals and setting the future course of action from a set of alternatives to reach them. The plan helps to maintain the managerial effectiveness as it works as a guide for the personnel for the future activities.|
|Fayol originally set forth five management functions, but management book authors have condensed them to four: The fifth function was staffing.|
|Know the general inputs into each P-O-L-C dimension.|
|It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities. These activities are different from operative functions like marketing, finance, purchase etc.|
|Planning is Looking Ahead is true because it contributes heavily to success and gives us some control over the future. By, planning we set aside our tasks and deadlines so we can enlarge our mental focus and seeing the bigger picture.|
The characteristic can be the output of the system during any stage of processing or it may be a condition that is the result of the system. For example, it may be the heat energy produced by the furnace or the temperature in the room which has changed because of the heat generated by the furnace.
In an elementary school system, the hours a teacher works or the gain in knowledge demonstrated by the students on a national examination are examples of characteristics that may be selected for measurement, or control.
The second element of control, the sensor, is a means for measuring the characteristic or condition. For example, in a home heating system this device would be the thermostat, and in a quality-control system this measurement might be performed by a visual inspection of the product.
The third element of control, the comparatordetermines the need for correction by comparing what is occurring with what has been planned. Some deviation from the plan is usual and expected, but when variations are beyond those considered acceptable, corrective action is required. It involves a sort of preventative action which indicates that good control is being achieved.
The fourth element of control, the activator, is the corrective action taken to return the system to its expected output. The actual person, device, or method used to direct corrective inputs into the operating system may take a variety of forms. It may be a hydraulic controller positioned by a solenoid or electric motor in response to an electronic error signal, an employee directed to rework the parts that failed to pass quality inspection, or a school principal who decides to buy additional books to provide for an increased number of students.
As long as a plan is performed within allowable limits, corrective action is not necessary; however, this seldom occurs in practice.
To illustrate how information flow facilitates control, let us review the elements of control in the context of information. Therefore, the choice of the controlled item and appropriate information about it is extremely important.
In other words, control of the selected characteristic should have a direct relationship to the goal or objective of the system.
Sensor[ edit ] After the characteristic is sensed, or measured, information pertinent to control is fed back. Exactly what information needs to be transmitted and also the language that will best facilitate the communication process and reduce the possibility of distortion in transmission must be carefully considered.
Information that is to be compared with the standard, or plan, should be expressed in the same terms or language as in the original plan to facilitate decision making.
Using machine methods computers may require extensive translation of the information.
Since optimal languages for computation and for human review are not always the same, the relative ease of translation may be a significant factor in selecting the units of measurement or the language unit in the sensing element. In many instances, the measurement may be sampled rather than providing a complete and continuous feedback of information about the operation.
A sampling procedure suggests measuring some segment or portion of the operation that will represent the total.
Regulations and laws provide a more formal collection of information for society. Social norms change, but very slowly.
In contrast, the standards outlined by a formal law can be changed from one day to the next through revision, discontinuation, or replacement by another. Information about deviant behavior becomes the basis for controlling social activity.
Output information is compared with the standard or norm and significant deviations are noted. In an industrial example, frequency distribution a tabulation of the number of times a given characteristic occurs within the sample of products being checked may be used to show the average quality, the spread, and the comparison of output with a standard.
If there is a significant and uncorrectable difference between output and plan, the system is "out of control.
Either the objectives must be reevaluated or the system redesigned to add new capacity or capability. For example, the traffic in drugs has been increasing in some cities at an alarming rate.
The citizens must decide whether to revise the police system so as to regain control, or whether to modify the law to reflect a different norm of acceptable behavior. Implementor[ edit ] The activator unit responds to the information received from the comparator and initiates corrective action.
If the system is a machine-to-machine system, the corrective inputs decision rules are designed into the network. When the control relates to a man-to-machine or man-to-man system, however, the individual s in charge must evaluate 1 the accuracy of the feedback information, 2 the significance of the variation, and 3 what corrective inputs will restore the system to a reasonable degree of stability.
Once the decision has been made to direct new inputs into the systemthe actual process may be relatively easy. A small amount of energy can change the operation of jet airplanes, automatic steel mills, and hydroelectric power plants.
The pilot presses a button, and the landing gear of the airplane goes up or down; the operator of a steel mill pushes a lever, and a ribbon of white-hot steel races through the plant; a worker at a control board directs the flow of electrical energy throughout a regional network of stations and substations.
It takes but a small amount of control energy to release or stop large quantities of input. For example, the measurement the sensory element is usually at the point of operations.
The measurement information can be transmitted to a distant point for comparison with the standard comparatorand when deviations occur, the correcting input can be released from the distant point.
However, the input activator will be located at the operating system.As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 75, lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. In this week’s discussion we are asked to discuss the most important decision’s that must be made in planning, organizing, leading, and controlling to allow a manager to utilize organizational resources effectively and build a competitive advantage.
shall discuss the first two functions i.e., planning and organising emphasising the nature, importance and process of planning, and the basic concepts of organising including process of or ganising, the or ganisation structure, delegation and .
The process used to accomplish organizational goals through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling people and other organizational resources.
middle management The level of management that includes general managers, division managers, and branch and plant managers who are responsible for tactical planning and controlling.
Answer / dada precious. Planning is one of the most important basic tools of management urbanagricultureinitiative.com resources are scarce and must be judiciously utilized to meet the competing needs of individuals, firms and government,the need for planning is very imperative and can not be overemphasized.
They include planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. The four concepts of management, translated into functions lead to the creation of a cohesive organization. They can be seen here as a diagram. ~ Planning objectives must be realistic, enthusiasm about a particular sector of the economy, or a new launch having .