Santo, PhD, and Gerard C. A labor market occurs when sellers of labor interact with buyers of labor. People in the workforce sell labor services to prospective employers in return for a payment.
Classical Greece was not a country in our modern sense, a place in which all Greeks lived within a single state with a single government. Instead, Greece was composed of several hundred independent cities, each with its surrounding countryside.
Unlike the United States, France, Japan, and other modern countries, the so-called nation-states or national states that have largely dominated the modern world, the sovereign states of Greece were city-states.
The most famous city-state, in classical times and after, was Athens. It was the Greeks-probably the Athenians-who coined the term democracy, or demokratia, from the Greek words demos, the people, and kratos, to rule.
It is interesting, by the way, that while in Athens the word demos usually referred to the entire Athenian people, sometimes it meant only the common people or even just the poor. In any case, democratia was applied specifically by Athenians and other Greeks to the government of Athens and of many other cities in Greece as well.
Among the Greek democracies, that of Athens was far and away the most important, the best known then and today, of incomparable influence on political philosophy, and often held up later as a prime example of citizen participation or, as some would say, participatory democracy.
The government of Athens was complex, too complex to describe adequately here. At its heart and center was an assembly in which all citizens were entitled to participate. The assembly elected a few key officials-generals, for example, odd as that may seem to us.
But the main method for selecting citizens for the other public duties was by a lottery in which eligible citizens stood an equal chance of being selected.
According to some estimates, an ordinary citizen stood a fair chance of being chosen by lot once in his lifetime to serve as the most important presiding officer in the government. Although some Greek cities joined in forming rudimentary representative governments for their alliances, leagues, and confederacies primarily for common defenselittle is known about these representative systems.
They left virtually no impress on democratic ideas and practices and none, certainly, on the later form of representative democracy. Nor did the Athenian system of selecting citizens for public duties by lot ever become an acceptable alternative to elections as a way of choosing representatives.
Thus the political institutions of Greek democracy, innovative though they had been, in their time, were ignored or even rejected outright during the development of modern representative democracy.
About the time that popular government was introduced in Greece, it also made its appearance on the Italian peninsula in the city of Rome. The Romans, however, chose to call their system a republic, from res, meaning thing or affair in Latin, and publicus, public: The right to participate in governing the Republic was at first restricted to the patricians, or aristocrats.
But in a development that we shall encounter again, after much struggle the common people the plebs, or plebeians also gained entry. As in Athens, the right to participate was restricted to men, just as it was also in all later democracies and republics until the twentieth century.
As a result, the Republic came to rule over all of Italy and far beyond. Rome never adequately adapted its institutions of popular government to the huge increase in the number of its citizens and their great geographical distances from Rome.
Oddly, from our present point of view, the assemblies in which Roman citizens were entitled to participate continued meeting, as before, within the city of Rome-in the very Forum that tourists still see today, in ruins.
But for most Roman citizens living in the far-flung territory of the Republic, the city was too far away to attend, at least without extraordinary effort and expense. It was rather as if American citizenship had been conferred on the people in the various states as the country expanded, even though the people in the new states could only exercise their right to vote in national elections by showing up in Washington, D.
Although the Romans were a highly creative and practical people, from their practice of electing certain important officials in citizen assemblies they never developed a workable system of representative government based on democratically elected representatives.
Before we jump to the conclusion that the Romans were less creative or capable than we are, let us remind ourselves that innovations and inventions to which we have grown accustomed often seem so obvious to us that we wonder why our predecessors did not introduce them earlier.
Most of us readily take things for granted that at an earlier time remained to be discovered. So, too, later generations may wonder how we could have overlooked certain innovations that they will take for granted.
Because of what we take for granted might not we, like the Romans, be insufficiently creative in reshaping our political institutions? Although the Roman Republic endured considerably longer than the Athenian democracy and longer than any modern democracy has yet endured, it was undermined after about B.ECRI is the leading authority on business cycles.
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On the No Spin News, Bill O'Reilly interviews former White House Press Secretary Sean Spicer on his time with the press, including how he dealt with the attacks and what he believes is the press' motive.
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