It is neither categoricalto be sure, as old Kant demanded observe the "lest"! In this effort toward a higher morality in our social relations, we must demand that the individual shall be willing to lose the sense of personal achievement, and shall be content to realize his activity only in connection with the activity of the many.
Philosophy[ edit ] The idealist philosopher G. Hegel introduced the concept of the Other as constituent part of human preoccupation with the Self. The concept of the Self requires the existence of the Other as the counterpart entity required for defining the Self; in the late 18th century, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel — introduced the concept of the Other as a constituent part of self-consciousness preoccupation with the Self which complements the propositions about self-awareness capacity for introspection proffered by Johann Gottlieb Fichte — The Phenomenology of Spirit Edmund Husserl — applied the concept of the Other as a basis for intersubjectivitythe psychological relations among people.
An Introduction to PhenomenologyHusserl said that the Other is constituted as an alter ego, as an other self. As such, the Other person posed and was an epistemological problem—of being only a perception of the consciousness of the Self. An Essay on Phenomenological OntologyJean-Paul Sartre — applied the dialectic of intersubjectivity to describe how the world is altered by the appearance of the Other, of how the world then appears to be oriented to the Other person, and not to the Self.
The Other appears as a psychological phenomenon in the course of a person's life, and not as a radical threat to the existence of the Self.
In that mode, in The Second SexSimone de Beauvoir — applied the concept of Otherness to Hegel's dialectic of the " Lord and Bondsman " Herrschaft und Knechtschaft and found it to be like the dialectic of the Man—Woman relationship, thus a true explanation for society's treatment and mistreatment of women.
Psychology[ edit ] The psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan — and the ethical philosopher Emmanuel Levinas — established the contemporary definitions, usages, and applications of the Other, as the radical counterpart of the Self.
Lacan associated the Other with language and with the symbolic order of things. Levinas associated the Other with the ethical metaphysics of scripture and tradition ; the ethical proposition is that the Other is superior and prior to the Self.
In the event, Levinas re-formulated the face-to-face encounter wherein a person is responsible to the Other person to include the propositions of Jacques Derrida — about the impossibility of the Other person being an entirely metaphysical pure-presence.
That the Other could be an entity of pure Otherness of alterity personified in a representation created and depicted with language that identifies, describes, and classifies.
The conceptual re-formulation of the nature of the Other also included Levinas's analysis of the distinction between " the saying and the said "; nonetheless, the nature of the Other retained the priority of ethics over metaphysics.
In the psychology of the mind e. Laingthe Other identifies and refers to the unconscious mindto silenceto insanityand to language "to what is referred and to what is unsaid". Likewise, problems arise from unethical usages of the terms The Other, Otherness, and Othering to reinforce ontological divisions of reality: An Essay on ExteriorityEmmanuel Levinas said that previous philosophy had reduced the Other person to an object of consciousness, by not preserving its absolute alterity —the innate condition of otherness, by which the Other radically transcends the Self and the totality of the human network into which the Other is being placed.
As a challenge to self-assurance, the existence of the Other is a matter of ethics, because the ethical priority of the Other equals the primacy of ethics over ontology in real life. The infinity of the Other allowed Levinas to derive other aspects of philosophy and science as secondary to that ethic; thus: The others that obsess me in the Other do not affect me as examples of the same genus united with my neighbor, by resemblance or common nature, individuations of the human race, or chips off the old block The others concern me from the first.
Here, fraternity precedes the commonness of a genus. My relationship with the Other as neighbor gives meaning to my relations with all the others. That logical problem has especially negative consequences in the realm of human geography when the Other person is denied ethical priority in geopolitical discourse.
Hence, the use of the language of Otherness in the anthropological discourse Oriental Studies about Western encounters with non—Western cultures preserves the dominantor—dominated discourse of hegemonyjust as misrepresenting the feminine as Other reasserts male privilege as primary in social discourse.
Bush — to the terrorist attacks on 11 September reinforced philosophic divisions of connotation and denotation that perpetuated the negative representation of the non-Western Other, when he rhetorically asked the U.
To build a conceptual framework around a notion of Us-versus-Them is, in effect, to pretend that the principal consideration is epistemological and natural—our civilization is known and accepted, theirs is different and strange—whereas, in fact, the framework separating us from them is belligerent, constructed, and situational.
Afghanistan, Palestine and Iraqp. In the lateth century, H. Strickland Constable justified anti-Irish racism among white people by claiming similarity between the cranial features of "the Irish-Iberian" man left and "the Negro" man rightas proof that each man is racially inferior to the Anglo-Teutonic man centre possessed of the cranial ideal.Louis Althusser was born in Algeria in and died in France in He taught philosophy for many years at the Ecole Normale Superieur in Paris, and was a 3/5(1).
Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays [Louis Althusser] on urbanagricultureinitiative.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. No figure among the western Marxist theoreticians has loomed larger in the postwar period than Louis Althusser. A rebel against the Catholic tradition in which he was raisedReviews: Lenin and Philosophy also contains Althusser's essay on Lenin's study of Hegel; a major essay on the state, "Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses," "Freud and Lacan: A letter on Art in Reply to Andr Daspre," and "Cremonini, Painter of the Abstract.".
Psychological Types (after C.G. Jung & the Briggs-Myers Typology) There are two kinds of people. There are dog people and cat people, Elvis people and Beatles people, New York people and LA people, Aristotle people and Plato people, morning people and night people, Leno people and Letterman people, Coke people and Pepsi people, people who put the cap on the toothpaste and those who don't.
Philosophy is the systematic study of the foundations of human knowledge with an emphasis on the conditions of its validity and finding answers to ultimate questions. While every other science aims at investigating a specific area of knowledge, such as physics or psychology, philosophy has been defined as “thinking about thinking.”At the same time, as expressed by its Greek etymology.
Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays [Louis Althusser] on urbanagricultureinitiative.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. No figure among the western Marxist theoreticians has loomed larger in the postwar period than Louis Althusser.
A rebel against the Catholic tradition in which he was raised.