There were rich people who sent their kids to school in foreign cars, that kind of thing. We tried to show that type of social background in this film.
See Article History Study of religion, attempt to understand the various aspects of religion, especially through the use of other intellectual disciplines. The study of religion emerged as a formal discipline during the 19th century, when the methods and approaches of historyphilologyliterary criticismpsychologyanthropologysociologyeconomicsand other fields were brought to bear on the task of determining the history, origins, and functions of religion.
No consensus among scholars concerning the best way to study religion has developed, however. One of the many reasons for this failure is that each discipline enlisted to study religion has its own distinctive methods and topics, and scholars often disagree about how to resolve the inevitable conflicts between these different intellectual perspectives.
Another reason is that questions about the origins and functions of religion have often been conflated with questions about the truth of religion, and this has led to controversies that tend to hinder the development of common concepts, methodologiesand problems.
Nature and significance The essence of religion and the context of religious beliefs, practices, and institutions Even a commonly accepted definition of religion has proved difficult to establish, though not for lack of trying.
Attempts have been made to find a distinctive ingredient in all religions, such as the numinous, or spiritual, experience, the contrast between the sacred and the profane, and the belief in one or more gods. But objections have been brought against all these attempts, either because the rich variety of religions makes it easy to find counterexamples or because the element cited as central is in some religions peripheral.
A more promising method would seem to be that of exhibiting aspects of religion that are typical of religions, though not necessarily universal, such as the occurrence of the rituals of worship.
There are religions, however, in which even worship rituals are not central. Thus, the preliminary task of the student of religion must be to amass an inventory of kinds of religious phenomena.
Even if an inventory of kinds of belief and practice could be gathered so as to provide a typical profile of what counts as religion, some scholars would maintain that the differences between religions are more significant than their similarities.
Moreover, in the absence of a tight definition there will always be a number of disputed cases. Thus, some political ideologiessuch as communism and fascismhave been regarded as analogous to religion. Although there is still no agreement on this issue, the frontier between traditional religions and modern political ideologies remains a promising topic of study.
Neutrality and subjectivity in the study of religion Discussion about religion has been complicated further by the attempt of some Christian theologians, notably Karl Barth —to draw a distinction between religion and the Gospel the proclamation peculiar to Christianity.
This distinction depends to some extent upon taking a projectionist view of religion as a human product. This tradition goes back in modern times to the seminal work of the German philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach —72who proposed that God was the extension of human aspirationsand it is found in the work of the philosopher Karl Marxthe founder of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freudand others.
Subjectivity in the study of religion There are doubts about how far there can be neutrality and objectivity in the study of religion. Is it possible to understand a faith without holding it?
If it is not possible, then cross-religious comparisons would mostly break down, for normally it is not possible to be inside more than one religion.
But it is necessary to be clear about what objectivity and subjectivity in religion mean. Religion can be said to be subjective in at least two senses.
First, the practice of religion involves inner experiences and sentimentssuch as feelings of God guiding the life of the devotee. Here religion involves subjectivity in the sense of individual experience.
As to the first sense, one of the challenges to the student of religion is the problem of evoking its inner, individual side, which is not observable in any straightforward way. In considering a religion, however, the scholar is concerned not only with individual responses but also with communal ones.
Often the scholar is confronted only with texts describing beliefs and stories, so the inner sentiments that these both evoke and express must be inferred.
The adherent of a faith is no doubt authoritative as to his own experience, but what of the communal significance of the rites and institutions in which the adherent participates?
Thus, the matter of coming to understand the inner side of a religion involves a dialectic between participant observation and dialogical interpersonal relationship with the adherents of the other faith.
The other sense of the subjectivity of religion is properly a matter for theology and the philosophy of religion. The study of religion can roughly be divided between descriptive and historical inquiries on the one hand and normative inquiries on the other.
Normative inquiries primarily concern the truth of religious claims, the acceptability of religious values, and other such normative aspects; descriptive inquiries, which are only indirectly involved with the normative elements of religion, are primarily concerned with the history, structure, and other observable elements of religion.
The distinction, however, is not an absolute one, for, as has been noted, descriptions of religion may sometimes incorporate theories about religion that imply something about the truth or other normative aspects of some or all religions.
Conversely, theological claims may imply something about the history of a religion.
The dominant sense in which the contemporary study of religion is understood is the descriptive sense. The term phenomenology refers first to the attempt to describe religious phenomena in a way that brings out the beliefs and attitudes of the adherents of the religion under investigation but without either endorsing or rejecting the beliefs and attitudes.
The term phenomenology also refers to the attempt to devise a typology, or classification, of religious phenomena—religious activities, beliefs, and institutions. The Christian theologian, for example, may see a particular historical process as providential.
This is a legitimate perspective from the standpoint of faith.
The study of religion may thus come to have a reflexive effect on religion itself, such as the manner in which modern Christian theology has been profoundly affected by the whole question of the historicity of the New Testament.
The reflexive effect of the study of religion on religion itself may in practice make it more difficult for the student of religion to adopt the detachment required by bracketing. Scholars do generally agree that the pursuit of objectivity is desirable, provided this stance does not involve the sacrifice of a sense of the inner aspect of religion.Bermuda Triangle Speech.
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