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Biography Early life and education Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier was born to a wealthy family of the nobility in Paris on 26 August The son of an attorney at the Parliament of Paris, he inherited a large fortune at the age of five upon the death of his mother.
In his last two years — at the school, his scientific interests were aroused, and he studied chemistrybotanyastronomyand mathematics. Lavoisier entered the school of law, where he received a bachelor's degree in and a licentiate in Lavoisier received a law degree and was admitted to the barbut never practiced as a lawyer.
However, he continued his scientific education in his spare time.
Early scientific work Lavoisier's education was filled with the ideals of the French Enlightenment of the time, and he was fascinated by Pierre Macquer 's dictionary of chemistry. He attended lectures in the natural sciences.
His first chemical publication appeared in In collaboration with Guettard, Lavoisier worked on a geological survey of Alsace-Lorraine in June In he read his first paper to the French Academy of SciencesFrance's most elite scientific society, on the chemical and physical properties of gypsum hydrated calcium sulfateand in he was awarded a gold medal by the King for an essay on the problems of urban street lighting.
In Lavoisier received a provisional appointment to the Academy of Sciences. Lavoisier as a social reformer Research benefitting the public good While Lavoisier is commonly known for his contributions to the sciences, he also dedicated a significant portion of his fortune and work toward benefitting the public.
The goal was to bring in water from the river Yvette into Paris so that the citizens could have clean drinking water. But, since the construction never commenced, he instead turned his focus to purifying the water from the Seine.
This was the project that interested Lavoisier in the chemistry of water and public sanitation duties. In addition, she assisted him in the laboratory and created many sketches and carved engravings of the laboratory instruments used by Lavoisier and his colleagues for their scientific works.
Madame Lavoisier edited and published Antoine's memoirs whether any English translations of those memoirs have survived is unknown as of today and hosted parties at which eminent scientists discussed ideas and problems related to chemistry. Completed in on the eve of the Revolution, the painting was denied a customary public display at the Paris Salon for fear that it might inflame anti-aristocratic passions.
He did, however, present one important memoir to the Academy of Sciences during this period, on the supposed conversion of water into earth by evaporation. By a very precise quantitative experiment Lavoisier showed that the "earthy" sediment produced after long-continued reflux heating of water in a glass vessel was not due to a conversion of the water into earth but rather to the gradual disintegration of the inside of the glass vessel produced by the boiling water.
He also attempted to introduce reforms in the French monetary and taxation system to help the peasants. Adulteration of tobacco The Farmers General held a monopoly of the production, import and sale of tobacco in France, and the taxes they levied on tobacco brought revenues of 30 million livres a year.
However this revenue began to fall because of a growing black market in tobacco that was smuggled and adulterated, most commonly with ash and water. Lavoisier devised a method of checking whether ash had been mixed in with tobacco: Of one vendor selling adulterated goods he wrote "His tobacco enjoys a very good reputation in the province Perhaps the Farm could gain some advantage by adding a bit of this liquid mixture when the tobacco is fabricated.
Thereafter the factories of the Farmers General added, as he recommended, a consistent 6. He was energetic and rigorous in implementing this, and the systems he introduced were deeply unpopular with the tobacco retailers across the country. This unpopularity was to have consequences for him during the French Revolution.
He then served as its Secretary and spent considerable sums of his own money in order to improve the agricultural yields in the Solognean area where farmland was of poor quality. The humidity of the region often led to a blight of the rye harvest, causing outbreaks of ergotism among the population.
In Lavoisier presented a report to the Commission detailing ten years of efforts on his experimental farm to introduce new crops and types of livestock.
His conclusion was that despite the possibilities of agricultural reforms, the tax system left tenant farmers with so little that it was unrealistic to expect them to change their traditional practices. There were also innumerable reports for and committees of the Academy of Sciences to investigate specific problems on order of the royal government.
Lavoisier, whose organizing skills were outstanding, frequently landed the task of writing up such official reports. As a result of his efforts, both the quantity and quality of French gunpowder greatly improved, and it became a source of revenue for the government. His appointment to the Gunpowder Commission brought one great benefit to Lavoisier's scientific career as well.
As a commissioner, he enjoyed both a house and a laboratory in the Royal Arsenal. Here he lived and worked between and The plan was for this to include both reports of debates in the National Constituent Assembly as well as papers from the Academy of Sciences.For the best advice on which paper guillotine is right for your requirements contact Shredders Direct.
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