Psychological research may do more than just observe participants: These concerns came to a head in the backlash after Stanley Milgram's study into obedience in the s. Researchers who go against these Codes will struggle to publish their work and may even lose their jobes.
Teaching effective revision strategies. I have declared a personal war on exam technique.
This give rise to psychological discomfort. Consequently, the student is motivated to reduce the dissonance.
This can be done by making a suitable attribution. Three possible dissonance-reducing attributions are: My suspicion is that 1 is unattractive because of its implications for self-image and 2 is unattractive because it implies the need to change longstanding beliefs and habits around learning and revision.
I suspect this may also be true of some teachers, at least some of the time. Like most teachers, I test my students fairly regularly, for a variety of reasons. I wish it were otherwise, as problems of exam technique are, in my experience, relatively easy to fix. Retrieval practice There is now fairly unequivocal evidence that the learning strategy most likely to result in retention of material is retrieval practice, that is, the reconstruction, without prompts, of information previously learned and stored in long-term memory.
Students who practice retrieving material from long-term memory forget less than those who do not see this chapter by Karpicke,for a comprehensive review. Karpicke identifies several reasons why retrieval practice enhances learning and recall. First, retrieval practice is transfer-appropriate processing.
That is, there is a large overlap between recall practice during learning and the way students will need to use material in their exams. Second, the effort involved in retrieval leaves memory traces strengthened. Third, retrieval practice incorporates retrieval cues into memory traces in helpful ways semantic elaboration.
Psychology essay on aggression theoretical accounts of why retrieval practice works are under development, the empirical support for its use is unarguable. A study by Roediger and Karpicke is fairly representative. Student participants were given unfamiliar material to learn across four study sessions.
One group was told to study i. A second group studied the material in the first three sessions and, in the fourth, tested themselves instead, by writing down as much of the material they could remember in free recall SSST. All the participants were then given a recall test. This was done 5 minutes after the end of the final session and then repeated after an interval of 1 week.
After 5 minutes, students who had studied and restudied the material SSSS had higher recall than the other two groups. The problem of spontaneous adoption This study, and the many confirmatory findings, demonstrates the superiority of retrieval-based learning over restudying for retention of material over the longer term.
It also hints at why many of our students may fail to adopt retrieval-based revision methods even when advised to do so: Ariel and Karpicke highlight a number of unhelpful beliefs that students and teachers often hold that militate against the adoption of retrieval-based study strategies.
First, there is the belief that restudying is the most effective way of learning material. Second, there is the belief that, whilst retrieval is a suitable way of monitoring learning, it does not, in itself, provide benefits to recall.
They were given the task of learning English-Lithuanian word translations. Participants were randomly assigned to either a control group who were simply told to learn as many of the words as possible in preparation for a final test or to a retrieval practice instructions group who were given 1 information about the superiority of retrieval over restudying; 2 a graph supporting this information; and 3 the advice that the best way of learning for the recall test was to ensure that each translation had been recalled at least three times before dropping it from study.
Importantly, in a transfer test given 1 week later, those who had received the retrieval instructions made significantly more use of self-testing on a task involving learning English-Swahili translations.
I taught the content in a conventional way. Then, after explaining and justifying the revision strategy I wanted them to use, I gave each student a set of revision cards for statistical test choice. These are set up so that, when photocopied back-to-back, there is a question on one side of each card and the relevant answer on the other.
I explained that revision with these cards should be done as follows the strategy is closely based on the one designed by Ariel and Karpicke: Create space on your desk for three piles of cards: Start by testing yourself on every card.
If you have successfully retrieved a card three times, put it on the DONE pile. I demonstrated this process, and then got the students to try it.
I circulated and watched how they went about it, coaching where necessary. Over the course of the lesson I gave them opportunities to use the revision strategy.Here are two lessons on theories of long term memory, covering the distinctions between episodic, semantic and procedural memories, associated research studies and critical urbanagricultureinitiative.com first has a slideshow on the key concepts, accompanied by a classification task and a comparison table to complete.
The second has a slideshow on critical issues and a reading on clinical case studies of . In order to prepare for exams, it is important to prepare a "tailor made" study guide. A study guide should reflect your own learning and not just what someone tells you is the "best" research to use on an urbanagricultureinitiative.com the topic "the individual and the group", you will find an attached study guide.
Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior, according to the American Psychological Association. It is the study of the mind, how it works, and how it affects behavior. Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and urbanagricultureinitiative.com is an academic discipline of immense scope and diverse interests that, when taken together, seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, and all the variety of epiphenomena they manifest.
As a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups. Using one or more examples, explain functions of two hormones in human behaviour. Introduction. State what you are doing in the essay; This essay will attempt to give a detailed account including reasons or causes of functions of hormones in human behaviour.
Anger and Aggression: An Essay on Emotion (Springer Series in Social Psychology) Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed.