Indus River viewed from the Karakoram Highway. The Indus is at the bottom of the picture, flowing left-to-right; the Zanskar, carrying more water, comes in from the middle left of the picture.
Also called sewage treatment or water pollution control plants, these facilities remove most pollutants from used water before it is discharged into local waterways. New York City's plants treat about 1.
Effective wastewater treatment is critical to the quality of life and the physical health of New York City residents and visitors. It not only protects people who use local beaches and waterways for swimming, fishing and other recreational activities, it also protects local wildlife and their habitats.
North River treats about million gallons of wastewater every day during dry weather, and it is designed to handle up to million gallons a day when the weather is wet. North River's history From the first proposal inseven locations were investigated as possible sites for the construction of a plant to handle the sewage flow from western Manhattan.
However, it was not untilafter considering several locations, that the City Planning Commission held a public hearing and finally approved the present site for the treatment plant.
Design studies were started in the early s and detailed plans were finished in Construction of the foundation platform was completed in Construction of the treatment plant went forward in two phases.
Work on the advanced preliminary treatment facilities began in ; the secondary treatment facilities were started in In Marchadvanced preliminary treatment went into operation, eliminating the daily discharge of raw sewage into the Hudson River for the first time in the City's history.
Secondary treatment began in April The plant The North River wastewater treatment plant is built on a acre reinforced concrete platform over the Hudson River. It rests on 2, caissons pinned into bedrock up to feet beneath the river.
North River has been widely recognized for its innovative design. The wastewater treatment process Several stories underground, wastewater flows into the North River plant from an mile-long intercepting sewer that extends along Manhattan's west side.
Upon entering the plant, the wastewater first passes through upright bars that remove large items, including rags, sticks, newspapers, cans and other debris. The trash is automatically scraped from the bars and later transported to a landfill. Five main sewage pumps lift the wastewater to the surface level primary settling tanks.
The flow of the water is slowed, allowing the heavier solids to settle on the bottom and the lighter materials to float. The partially-treated wastewater then flows to the secondary treatment system. Air pumped into five, foot-deep aeration tanks stimulates the growth of oxygen-using bacteria and other tiny organisms that consume most of the remaining organic materials that pollute the water.
The aerated wastewater then flows to 16 final settling tanks, where heavy particles and other solids again settle to the bottom. Some of this sludge is recirculated back to the aeration tanks as "seed" to stimulate the treatment process.
The remaining solids are removed and join the primary sludge for further processing in sludge-handling facilities.
To destroy disease-causing organisms, the wastewater is disinfected with sodium hypochlorite, the same chemical found in common household chlorine bleach.
The treated wastewater, called effluent, is then released into the Hudson River. Sludge treatment Sludge produced by primary and secondary treatment is approximately 97 percent water, and must be concentrated for further processing.
It is sent to thickening tanks for a period of up to 24 hours, where it settles to the bottom. The water that remains is directed back to the aeration tanks for additional treatment. The thickened sludge, which is about 96 percent water, is then placed in oxygen-free tanks called digesters and heated first to 95 degrees fahrenheit.
This stimulates the growth of anaerobic bacteria bacteria that thrive without oxygenwhich consume the organic material in the sludge. Methane gas, one of the byproducts of the digestion process, is used as fuel in certain plant operations. Converting sludge into biosolids After digestion, the sludge is dewatered.
After dewatering, all of the City's biosolids, including those generated at North River, are recycled and reused. The biosolids are removed from the dewatering facilities by companies that have been awarded long-term contracts by the City. These companies either convert biosolids into environmentally safe fertilizer products or directly apply them onto land to enrich nutrient depleted soil.
During the odor control process, plant air is pumped into a large tank and scrubbed clean with a mixture of two chemicals, sodium hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide lye.
The air is then funneled through activated carbon filters, which absorb odors and chemicals and remove the remaining odor-producing particles.
The air is then released through foot ventilation stacks on the plant roof. Monitoring the system All of the plant's systems are controlled by a sophisticated computer system.
From the main control console, operators can oversee plant operations, energy use and North River's security system. More information For more information about the New York City water supply or wastewater treatment systems, contact us at:The Indus River provides key water resources for Pakistan's economy – especially the breadbasket of Punjab province, which accounts for most of the nation's agricultural production, and urbanagricultureinitiative.com word Punjab means "land of five rivers" and the five rivers are Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej, all of which finally flow into the urbanagricultureinitiative.com Indus also supports many heavy industries and.
Pollution of Ganga River Essay in Hindi अर्थात इस आर्टिकल में आप पढेंगे गंगा का प्रदूषण के विषय पर एक निबंध हिन्दी भाषा में. प्रदूषण पर निबंध (पोल्लुशन एस्से) You can find here some essays on Pollution in Hindi language for students in , , , , and words.
Colorado River Pollution. Pollution in the Colorado River By Axia College The Colorado River supplies water to most of the southwestern United States and despite this fact, pollution levels are continually rising and in some cases above acceptable limits.
1 River Pollution: Causes, Actions and Revival For a better tomorrow, act today Janhit Foundation. River Pollution In Hindi.
Pollution in the Colorado River By Axia College The Colorado River supplies water to most of the southwestern United States and despite this fact, pollution levels are continually rising and in some cases above acceptable limits.