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Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Native American history The thoughts and perspectives of indigenous individuals, especially those who lived during the 15th through 19th centuries, have survived in written form less often than is optimal for the historian.
Because such documents are extremely rare, those interested in the Native American past also draw information from traditional artsfolk literaturefolklorearchaeologyand other sources.
Powhatan village of SecotonPowhatan village of Secoton, colour engraving by Theodor de Bry,after a watercolour drawing by John White, c.
As one would expect, indigenous American farmers living in stratified societies, such as the Natchezengaged with Europeans differently than did those who relied on hunting and gathering, such as the Apache.
Likewise, Spanish conquistadors were engaged in a fundamentally different kind of colonial enterprise than were their counterparts from France or England.
The sections below consider broad trends in Native American history from the late 15th century to the late 20th century. More-recent events are considered in the final part of this article, Developments in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
North America and Europe circa The population of Native America Scholarly estimates of the pre-Columbian population of Northern America have differed by millions of individuals: In anthropologist James Mooney undertook the first thorough investigation of the problem.
He estimated the precontact population density of each culture area based on historical accounts and carrying capacity, an estimate of the number of people who could be supported by a given form of subsistence.
Mooney concluded that approximately 1, individuals lived in Northern America at the time of Columbian landfall. In ethnohistorian Henry Dobyns estimated that there were between 9, and 12, people north of the Rio Grande before contact; in he revised that number upward to 18, people.
Dobyns was among the first scholars to seriously consider the effects of epidemic diseases on indigenous demographic change. He noted that, during the reliably recorded epidemics of the 19th century, introduced diseases such as smallpox had combined with various secondary effects i.
He then used this and other information to calculate from early census data backward to probable founding populations. Some of his critics fault Dobyns for the disjunctions between physical evidence and his results, as when the number of houses archaeologists find at a site suggests a smaller population than do his models of demographic recovery.
Others, including the historian David Henige, criticize some of the assumptions Dobyns made in his analyses.
For instance, many early fur traders noted the approximate number of warriors fielded by a tribe but neglected to mention the size of the general population. This group notes that severe epidemics of European diseases may have begun in North America in the late 10th or early 11th century, when the Norse briefly settled a region they called Vinland.
Yet another group of demographers protest that an emphasis on population loss obscures the resilience shown by indigenous peoples in the face of conquest. Most common, however, is a middle position that acknowledges that demographic models of 15th-century Native America must be treated with caution, while also accepting that the direct and indirect effects of the European conquest included extraordinary levels of indigenous mortality not only from introduced diseases but also from battles, slave raids, and—for those displaced by these events—starvation and exposure.
This perspective acknowledges both the resiliency of Native American peoples and cultures and the suffering they bore.We return to Jamestown, a 17th Century English settlement on the edge of the breathtaking but untamed Virginian wilderness.
This second season sees the tobacco plantations provide the wealth they promised but the status quo will soon be disrupted by births, deaths and broken marriages. Latest breaking news, including politics, crime and celebrity.
Find stories, updates and expert opinion. Latest breaking news, including politics, crime and celebrity. Find stories, updates and expert opinion. A Space Colony is when a colony is not on the surface of a planet, but instead is a huge space station. They are discussed in detail here..
And when a mature colony starts making noices about "No Taxation Without Representation", the time is ripe for a War of Independence. - May 29; Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks. After years the Eastern Roman Empire has finally reached its end, shutting Europe's door to the East.
the revolutionary war. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii.